Washington also considered China a possible nuclear adversary and noted that the USA arsenal is created to "prevent Beijing from mistakenly concluding" that it can take advantage if it uses its atomic weapons in Asia, or that "the use of nuclear weapons on a limited scale is acceptable".
But Beijing dismissed the review as "presumptuous speculation", saying China had strictly followed a "no first use" policy - meaning it would not use nuclear weapons unless it was attacked with them - and had been "always extremely restrained" in its nuclear weapons development.
China also said that the US already has the world's largest nuclear arsenal and should instead look to reduce its number of weapons.
"The US Nuclear Posture Review reflects greater reliance on nukes in violation of the NPT, bringing humankind closer to annihilation".
On Twitter, Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif also lashed out.
Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said that the U.S. nuclear doctrine bringing humankind closer to annihilation.
However, America is concerned that its arsenal won't remain an effective deterrent without being modernized.
Beyond Russia, the review calls North Korea and its leader Kim Jong-un a "clear and grave threat" to the U.S. and its allies, repeating the Trump administration line that a North Korean nuclear attack against the USA or its allies will result in "the end of that regime".
The review claims Russian Federation has a stockpile of 2,000 non-strategic nuclear weapons, while the United States has a few hundred active low-yield weapons deployed in Europe.
Low-yield nuclear weapons, while still devastating, have a strength of less than 20 kilotons.
"We hope that the United States will abandon its Cold War mentality, earnestly assume its special disarmament responsibilities, correctly understand China's strategic intentions and objectively view China's national defence and military build-up", its statement said. The defence ministry in Beijing said the USA had played up the threat of China's nuclear threat, adding that its own policy was defensive in nature.
Modifying some submarine-launched nuclear warheads to give a lower-yield detonation.
"Peace and development are irreversible global trends".