The gathering's final statement, however, did not mention protectionism after negotiators said the USA objected to the wording.
Asked about the European concerns, a USA official said progress was being made on the joint statement and the White House was "optimistic" about the document as a whole. The deal is meant to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement, which Trump long denigrated as a "disaster". All 19 other members of the G20 declared their support for the climate agreement on Saturday.
The divisions among the world's leading economies were evident from the moment Argentina's president opened the summit Friday with a call for global cooperation to solve the planet's problems.
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina (AP) - Leaders of the world's top economies agreed Saturday to fix the global trading system as they closed a Group of 20 summit that saw the Trump administration at odds with many allies over the Paris accord on climate change and issues like migration.
Macron, pausing from his attempts to build a G20 front on climate change and from the challenge of violent protests back home, said Bush "was a world leader, who strongly supported the alliance with Europe". Trump has criticized the WTO and taken aggressive trade policies targeting China and the EU. The only holdout was the US, which has withdrawn from the pact under Trump.
The statement also shows a commitment to a "rules-based worldwide order", despite Trump's rejection of many of those rules.
Saudi Arabia's crown prince met the Secretary-General of the United Nations Antonio Guterres on the sidelines of the summit.
With respect to trade, he said that "what is being proposed is trade that is fair".
But China also pushed back in talks on steel, South Africa objected to language on trade, Australia didn't want the statement to be too soft on migration and Turkey anxious it would push too far on climate change, according to the officials.
Argentine Foreign Minister Jorge Faurie said final communique does not require the signature of presidents.
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Also Friday, European Council President Donald Tusk urged G-20 leaders to discuss "trade wars, the tragic situation in Syria and Yemen, and Russian aggression in Ukraine".
Nor was there mention of the concern many leaders feel about the brutal killing of columnist and critic Jamal Khashoggi in October in the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul. Macron also said that he and the crown prince also discussed oil prices.
French President Emmanuel Macron was captured on video seemingly lecturing bin Salman, at one point being heard saying "I am anxious", "you never listen to me", and "I am a man of my word".
Russian Federation and Ukraine have traded blame over the weekend ship incident - which Trump cited in canceling a much-awaited meeting with Putin at the G-20.
Bin Salman told Macron not to worry, but Macron countered, "I am anxious". Xi agreed to buy a "not yet agreed upon, but very substantial amount of agricultural, energy, industrial" and other products from the United States to reduce America's huge trade deficit with China, the White House said.
US intelligence agencies concluded the Saudi prince was behind the killing.
Trump called the pact a "model agreement that changes the trade landscape forever".
After the G20 talks ended, Trump and his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping agreed over dinner on Saturday to a ceasefire in their trade conflict, calling off higher USA tariffs that were to go into effect on Jan 1.
It must still be ratified by lawmakers in all three countries, and passage in the USA could face a tough road in the House of Representatives after Democrats won a majority in November midterm elections.