Just before the close, Pujara was run out by a direct hit from Pat Cummins to end his 246-ball innings. "Playing in England, conditions are always challenging and when you come to Australia, you know that pitches are slightly better and as I said, I had decent time to prepare before the Test series", he said.
Batting after Kohli won the toss, the visitors crumbled in a disastrous morning session under a pace barrage before digging in later in the day with Pujara and Ravi Ashwin (25 off 76 balls) staging a fightback as the bowlers exhausted.
Indian No.3 Cheteshwar Pujara batted for nearly all of Thursday's play, coming to the crease at the end of the second over - and departing to a piece of magic in the field by Pat Cummins with the last ball of the day.
Pujara faced 141 balls for a dogged 46 not out with his latest partner Ravi Ashwin unbeaten on five on a day characterised by poor shot selection.
With four wickets in the first session and two in the second, Australia looked set to take bragging rights on the first day of the series in Adelaide, but a tough final session would have frustrated captain Tim Paine.
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"I thought we bowled really well for four hours, probably pretty well for another hour and probably got it a bit wrong at the end there", Starc told reporters.
Pujara then enjoyed 41-run and 62-run partnerships with Pant and Ashwin respectively before the 30-year-old, playing his 65th Test, was run out by Cummins, who along with Hazlewood and Starc each picked up two wickets.
In marched Kohli to a huge roar from the crowd, but Usman Khawaja at gully spectacularly caught him off a Cummins delivery as he attempted a drive, out after facing only 16 balls.
Usman Khawaja took a superb catch to dismiss Virat Kohli.
Vice captain Ajinkya Rahane and Pujara worked to steady the ship.