Putin dismissed Pompeo's statement as a smokescreen, saying Washington had already chose to ditch the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces treaty (INF).
US President Donald Trump has previously said the country would leave the treaty because of Russian actions.
The US and NATO say Russia's 9M729 system, also known by the designation SSC-8, violates the INF treaty, which banned ground-launched missiles with a range of 500 to 5,500 kilometres.
However, Mr Putin appeared on Russian TV to refute the claims, saying USA accusations were a pretext so that they could exit the agreement.
The NATO chief said the alliance is also preparing a contingency plan in case the Kremlin fails to comply and the US pulls out of the accord.
"Apparently now American partners believe the situation has changed so much that the United States should also have such weapons".
Russia's General Staff chief Valery Gerasimov added that the Kremlin would retaliate against America's European allies who would store intermediate range missiles if the U.S. pulled out of the INF Treaty.
Petición de asilo a Uruguay falló por "presiones políticas" — Expresidente peruano
García se pronunció luego de los disturbios que se registraron en el exterior de su residencia luego de que partidarios del Apra denunciaran este hecho.
"The INF has guaranteed peace and security in European territory for 30 years now", Mogherini said as she arrived for talks with North Atlantic Treaty Organisation foreign ministers.
If Russia does not comply within the 60-day deadline, the United States will begin the six-month process of formally withdrawing from the INF treaty.
"We strongly support the finding of the United States that Russian Federation is in material breach of its obligations under the INF Treaty".
In Brussels, EU diplomatic chief Federica Mogherini urged Russian Federation and the United States to save the treaty, warning that Europe did not want to become a battlefield for global powers once again, as it had been during the Cold War.
Until then, Pompeo said, the U.S. would not "test or produce or deploy any systems" that would breach the treaty.
He reportedly chose not to withdraw from the treaty under pressure from European leaders, who said such a move could restart an arms race. The Peresvet laser systems received by the troops are stationed near places of permanent deployment, which are fitted out with the infrastructure necessary for combat duty. It was replaced by a modified defence system in 2016.